718 Spyder Concept.
A firebrand. A go-getter. Aiming for the skies. The 718 Spyder is an exclamation mark in a world full of ‘what ifs’. And it is a promise – to every road and to every driver. Here is a roadster with no two quite the same. No compromises. No regrets. No rational arguments.
Porsche - 718 Spyder
Porsche - 718 Spyder
Porsche - 718 Spyder
With no rational arguments.
How about instead, unrestrained emotion and a good headwind?

The hood

Learn more

Open to everything.
Except half measures.

The hood

Let's face it, you’ll barely ever want to close it.

The side profile of the hood is flat and shaped to pass harmoniously into the streamliners over the rear lid.

It releases electrically. In a few simple steps, the hood can then be stored under the rear lid.

The hood

Learn more

Open to everything.
Except half measures.

The hood

Let's face it, you’ll barely ever want to close it.

The side profile of the hood is flat and shaped to pass harmoniously into the streamliners over the rear lid.

It releases electrically. In a few simple steps, the hood can then be stored under the rear lid.


Porsche 718 Spyder
718 Spyder
From NZ$ 202,000.00 incl. 15% GST

Technical Specs

309 kW/420 PS Power (kW)/Power (PS)
4.4 s Acceleration 0 - 100 km/h
301 km/h Top speed
1,801 mm Width
4,430 mm Length

Power unit

Number of cylinders


Fuel grade



102.0 mm


81.5 mm


3,995 cm³

Power (kW)

309 kW

Power (PS)

420 PS

RPM point maximum power

7,600 1/min

Max. torque (Manual)

420 Nm

Max. torque (PDK)

430 Nm

RPM point maximum torque (PDK)

5,500 1/min

RPM range maximum torque (Manual)

5,000 - 6,800 1/min


Top speed (Manual)

301 km/h

Top speed (PDK)

300 km/h

Acceleration 0 - 100 km/h (Manual)

4.4 s

Acceleration 0 - 100 km/h (PDK)

3.9 s

Acceleration 0 - 160 km/h (Manual)

9.0 s

Acceleration 0 - 160 km/h (PDK)

8.5 s

Acceleration 0 - 200 km/h (Manual)

13.8 s

Acceleration 0 - 200 km/h (PDK)

13.4 s

Flexibility (80-120 km/h) (50-75 mph) in 5th gear (Manual)

6.0 s

In-gear acceleration (80-120km/h) (50-75 mph) (PDK)

2.5 s

1/4 mile (Manual)

12.4 s

1/4 mile (PDK)

12.0 s



4,430 mm


1,801 mm

Width (with mirrors)

1,994 mm


1,258 mm


2,484 mm

Unladen weight (DIN) (Manual)

1,420 kg

Unladen weight (DIN) (PDK)

1,450 kg

Permissible gross weight (Manual)

1,720 kg

Permissible gross weight (PDK)

1,750 kg

Maximum load

300 kg


Luggage compartment volume, front

150 l

Luggage compartment volume, rear

120 l

Fuel tank

64 l

Service and Warranty

Warranty period

3 years

Main service interval

15,000 km / 1 year

Paint warranty period

3 years

Rust warranty

12 years



From NZ$ 202,000.00 incl. 15% GST


From NZ$ 202,000.00 incl. 15% GST


718 Spyder concept
718 Spyder concept
A firebrand. A go-getter. Aiming for the skies. The 718 Spyder is an exclamation mark in a world full of ‘what ifs’. And it is a promise – to every road and to every driver. Here is a roadster with no two quite the same. No compromises. No regrets. No rational arguments.
How about instead, unrestrained emotion and a good headwind? With a high-agility, mid-engined concept that will bring tears of joy to the eyes of all sports car fans. With a lightweight hood you’ll probably never close. With sports suspension, manual transmission, door pull loops – essentially everything your everyday life doesn’t need, but your heart yearns for.
With all this, the 718 Spyder only has one target: to rob you of your sleep – and your common sense. To unleash your wild side. To awaken your primal instincts. Take you as close to the moon as possible. And even closer to the road.
The 718 Spyder.
Design and aerodynamics
Design and aerodynamics
Serpentines. Hairpin bends. Gradients. Mountain races have always been a special challenge. At the start of the 1960s, by creating the 718 RS 60 Spyder, Porsche continued to expand the successful concept of the legendary 550 Spyder and its successor models – lightweight, lower centre of gravity, mid-mounted engine, great manoeuvrability – and sparked waves of excitement in countless mountain and long-distance races.
The design language of the 718 RS 60 Spyder was influenced by its function. Be fast, be agile, win races. And exactly this design language can be seen now in the 718 Spyder. Its unmistakable silhouette with the flyline typical of a midmounted engine, for example. Or the front spoiler: elegantly rounded, flattened, closer to the road. The front apron is reduced to the basics. Its clearly defined shape with the typical Porsche sweep tells the headwind what it has to do: create optimum tyre contact pressure. Especially in the corners.
The highly distinctive front spoiler lip with an additional spoiler in front of the wheel arches reduces the aerodynamic lift on the front axle. The central air intake in the front apron also optimises the aerodynamics and channels the air stream up through the air outlet in front of the front lid.
Even the underside of the front spoiler lip has been aerodynamically optimised. Here, the special profiling – similar to a golf ball surface – ensures drag is as low as possible. Air curtains in the front apron minimise the air turbulence created on the wheels and therefore minimise drag by releasing the inflowing air precisely in front of the wheels from the wheel arches.
The large air intakes with air intake grilles ensure a high cooling capacity. Thanks to the honeycomb structure of the grilles, these are even more aerodynamically efficient than in previous models.
The design is additionally rounded off by the 20-inch alloys set deeply in the wheel housing that give the performance of the 718 Spyder a greater contact area with the road, thanks to the sports tyres. The typical 718 lines on the doors direct air to the side air intakes. These supply the midmounted engine with fresh air, ensuring that it is efficiently ventilated – if it gets hot.
The rear end of the 718 shows how perfect irrationality can be. The rear is influenced by the characteristic streamliners that visually carry forward the shape of the black roll-over bars. They lend the 718 Spyder its unmistakable look and, at the same time, are reminiscent of the silhouette of one or other of its predecessors.
The distinctive rear spoiler between the tinted taillights emphasises the performance-oriented design. At speeds in excess of 120km/h it automatically extends – and reduces lift for more driving stability.
The dynamic slope of the rear end is made up of the diffuser and the concise sports exhaust system. Its two black sports tailpipes are separated further and create the unfiltered sound that, every now and then, silences reason. The rear diffuser creates a very fast flow on the rear underbody and has a decisive impact on reducing overall lift by 50%. Super sports car technology that makes itself felt every second – in a good way of course.
Let’s face it, you’ll barely ever want to close it: the partially electric and high-speed compatible, lightweight hood of the 718 Spyder. It can be opened and closed with ease and enhances the presence of the 718 Spyder even when closed.
The side profile of the hood is flat and shaped to pass harmoniously into the streamliners over the rear lid. At the rear, the hood tapers into two taut, streamlined fins.
It releases electrically. In a few simple steps, the hood can then be stored under the rear lid – without reducing the luggage compartment volume of course. The hood is also available in two-tone red and black in conjunction with the Classic package. The roll-over bars can also optionally be painted in the exterior colour.
A 718 Boxster with six-cylinder horizontally opposed and naturally aspirated engine. Obviously. But with 4.0-litre displacement? The question has to be asked: “Does it go?” It goes. Like a bat out of hell.
Perfect. Or in other words: the horizontally opposed engine, completely redesigned. Six-cylinder, 4.0-litre displacement, naturally aspirated engine, excellent torque. Clear announcements presented by our broadly grinning engineers.
With its 309kW (420PS), the engine delivers 45PS more than its predecessors. A variable intake manifold with switchable resonance valves ensures optimal ventilation. As well as direct fuel injection (DFI), integrated dry-sump lubrication and adaptive cylinder control.
The maximum engine speed? 8,000rpm. The maximum torque of 420Nm is from 5,000 to 6,800rpm. Enough thrust to accelerate the 718 Spyder to 100km/h in 4.4 seconds. Irrational: the sprint only ends the other side of the 300km/h mark.
An acoustic exclamation mark: the sound of the 718 Spyder. Thanks to the precise sports exhaust system with its two clearly separated black tailpipes, to the left and right of the rear diffuser. For an even more powerful sports car sound at the press of a button.
1st gear: start. 2nd gear: acceleration. 3rd gear: raise eyebrows. 4th gear: smile. 5th gear: cheer at the top of your voice. 6th gear: sigh contentedly. And then repeat as often as you like.
The torque transmission in the 718 Spyder is achieved by the precise 6-speed manual transmission with dual-mass flywheel, optimally designed for power. The movements of the gearshift paddles are crisp and short. The driving experience is especially active, intense and pure. The dynamic throttle-blip function plays its part in keeping you, and your endorphin levels, busy.

Porsche Doppelkupplung (PDK)

For the 718 Spyder, the optionally available PDK is even more sporty. The GT-specific gear selector, short shift times and short, succinct gear changes via the shift paddles as well as a sporty seventh gear offer a convincing shift performance. Back to shift up, forwards to shift down – manual operation of the gear selector is based on the established motorsport principle.

Porsche Torque Vectoring (PTV) including rear differential lock

In short: PTV improves the dynamic performance. In detail: the integrated rear differential lock enables higher traction and significantly increased lateral dynamics and vehicle stability during load changes in corners and when changing lanes. In addition, when the car is driven assertively into a corner, brake pressure is applied to the inside rear wheel. Consequently, a greater amount of drive torque is distributed to the outside rear wheel, almost pulling the car into the corner. Steering response is improved, agility is increased.
Drifting gently through. Floating along the road on a cloud. A leather armchair on four wheels. To be frank: the 718 Spyder is nothing like that.
The adaptive GT sports suspension of the 718 Spyder is designed so that you experience every centimetre of road as directly as possible. And master every corner. Thanks to the wide toe angle, the streamlined tuning of the shock absorbers and the lowered body, every journey is a wild ride.
The lightweight spring-strut axle at the front is designed in typical GT style, the lightweight spring-strut axle at the rear is adjusted to the high performance of the 718 Spyder with additional reinforcements and springs as well as specific wheel mounts. Ball joints on both axles also connect the chassis to the body in a particularly streamlined way, enabling an even more precise wheel control. Height, camber, toe angle and the anti-roll bars of the chassis can be adjusted individually. The 718 Spyder doesn’t just remain true to the track. It also remains true to your adrenaline levels – at the next mountain race for example.

Dynamic transmission mounts

The electrically regulated system minimises perceptible oscillations and the vibration of the entire drivetrain, in particular the engine. It also adjusts the damping force and stiffness to the driving style and road surface conditions. So that the benefits of a hard and a soft engine mounting arrangement can be used. The handling is noticeably more stable and precise during load changes and in fast corners. At the same time, the vertical oscillations of the engine are reduced during acceleration under full load. The results are greater and more uniform drive force at the rear axle, increased traction and faster acceleration. Whenever a less assertive driving style is adopted, the dynamic transmission mounts soften to provide a heightened level of comfort.

Porsche Active Suspension Management (PASM)

This variable damping system offers continuous adjustment of the damping force on each wheel based on the current driving situation and your driving style. At the push of a button, you can choose between two sporty programmes: Normal mode for sporty driving on public roads and Sport mode for maximum lateral acceleration and the best possible traction on the race track. The body is also lowered by 30mm for a low vehicle centre of gravity. As a result, the pitch and roll are reduced for increased dynamic performance and extraordinary longitudinal and lateral acceleration. The crazy thing: long-distance comfort isn’t ignored either.

Porsche Stability Management (PSM)

PSM is an automatic control system for maintaining stability at the limits of dynamic driving performance. In addition to the anti-lock braking system (ABS), it includes Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Traction Control (TC). Sensors continuously monitor the direction, speed, yaw velocity and lateral acceleration of the car. Using this information, PSM is able to calculate the actual direction of travel and initiate strategic braking of individual wheels to stop you from deviating from your intended line. What’s special about the 718 Spyder? The sporty tuning with extremely sensitive and accurate regular systems interventions. And systems that can be switched off completely in two stages – a feature previously reserved for the GT models.
Wheels and tyres
Wheels and tyres
The 20-inch alloy wheels of the 718 Spyder are painted in silver colour. Upon request, the wheels can also be painted in satin platinum or satin black. The dimensions of the road-approved sports tyres are performance orientated. Specifically, 245/35 ZR 20 on 8.5 J × 20 front and 295/30 ZR 20 on 11 J × 20 rear. Multiple contact surfaces and grip with the reduced tread depth increases, however, the risk of aquaplaning on wet surfaces.
We would love to say: “please step in!” but that wouldn’t do justice to your first contact with the 718 Spyder. You slip into it like a hand into a perfectly fitting glove. Everything fits. Everything is tailored to the driver. Mostly due to the sports car ergonomics, perfected over decades. The elevated centre console ensures a short path from the motorsport typical small GT sports steering wheel to the shortened gear lever or PDK gear selector and back. Door pull loops emphasise the puristic sporty interior. You can also forego the audio and communication system, upon request – if you want absolutely nothing to distract from pure driving.
The instrument cluster with the three round instruments (typical of the 718) and central rev counter provide the driver with all the information they need fast. The dial faces are black, the needles and increment markings are white, as are the analogue and digital stopwatch of the Chrono Package on the dashboard. The centre of the rev counter features the ‘Spyder’ logo.
The dashboard trim strips and the centre console are painted in the exterior colour. A Race-Tex interior with extended leather features is also available on request. Visual highlight: the dashboard trim strips painted in the exterior colour continue on the doors. An interior package with elements made of brushed aluminium in black is also available.
In conjunction with this configuration, decorative stitching packages can be added on request to create interior contrast. They are available in silver colour, red or yellow and also include the ‘Spyder’ logo on the headrests as well as the door pull loops. The seat belts can also be in matching colours if desired.
Nostalgia for the history of the 718 Spyder: the optional interior package Spyder Classic in Bordeaux Red and black. The colours can also be reflected in the hood if desired, and are complemented with extended items in black Race-Tex and GT Silver Metallic painted trim strips.
The seats of the 718 Spyder also reflect its sporty appeal. The cover, in all seat variants, is in black leather, the seat centres in Race-Tex. The headrests are embroidered with the ‘Spyder’ logo in different stitching colours according to equipment package variant.

Sports seats Plus

The Sports seats Plus, with their sporty streamlined padding and raised side bolsters, provide optimal hold. The backrest can be adjusted electrically and the seat height and fore/aft position can be adjusted mechanically.

Adaptive Sports seats Plus

The adaptive Sports seats Plus go a step further. They complement the Sports seats Plus with an electric 18-way adjustment. The seats can be optimally adapted to meet your needs in terms of seat height, squab and backrest angle, seat depth, fore/aft adjustment and four-way lumbar support. The side bolsters on the seat surface and backrest can also be individually adjusted for precise lateral support on curves and added comfort on long journeys.

Full bucket seats

The full bucket seats are made of carbon-fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) with carbon-weave finish. This provides especially good lateral support at minimal weight. The fore/aft adjustment is manual, the height adjustment is electric.
Spyder Classic interior package
Spyder Classic interior package
Even in the 1950s our engineers were a little irrational – in a good way. In 1957, for example, they sent the, then recently tested, 718 RSK Spyder to what is probably the toughest long-distance race in the world; the 24h of Le Mans. One year later it took third and fourth place. Victories in the European Hill-Climb Championship and the Targa Florio followed in 1959. Its direct successor was the 718 RS 60 Spyder. Together they dominated the Hill-Climb Championships for years.
With the optional Spyder Classic interior package, these legends live on in the 718 Spyder. Starting with the specific two-tone look in Bordeaux Red and black – on request, also available on the hood of the 718 Spyder. In contrast: extended items in black Race-Tex as in motorsport. The trim strips painted in GT Silver Metallic contour the expressive colour combination with simple elegance, and are reminiscent of the style of historical race cars.
In the midst of irrationality – we can also be extremely sensible. Not just for quality and sustainability but also when it comes to the most important thing: your safe arrival.


They say with great power comes great responsibility. That’s when the brakes of the 718 Spyder, derived directly from the 911 GT3, come into play. Specifically, front sixpiston, rear four-piston aluminium monobloc fixed brake calipers with red finish. For greater inherent stability and faster response when applying and releasing the brake, even under extreme loads. The composite brake discs, adapted to the high power output, have a 380mm diameter at the front and rear. They are internally vented and crossdrilled for high thermal load and good responsiveness – even in the wet.

Porsche Ceramic Composite Brake (PCCB)

Motorsport tested: the optionally available Porsche Ceramic Composite Brake (PCCB). With their particularly large brake disc diameters, 410mm at the front and 390mm at the rear, they offer even greater braking performance. The use of six-piston aluminium monobloc fixed brake calipers on the front axle and four-piston aluminium monobloc fixed brake calipers at the rear all with yellow finish, ensures extremely high, and above all constant, braking pressure. PCCB enables shorter braking distances in even the toughest road and race conditions. The main benefit of the ceramic braking system is its extremely low weight. The brake discs are approximately 50% lighter than cast-iron discs of a similar design and size.
As well as enhancing driving performance and fuel economy, this reduces unsprung and rotating masses. Which results in better roadholding and increased comfort, particularly on uneven roads.

Passive safety

The safety concept consists of a stiffness optimisation of the body construction, two-piece roll-over protection and two full-size airbags that go off in two stages depending on the type and severity of the accident. Porsche Side Impact Protection (POSIP), comprising side impact protection elements in the doors, thorax airbag integrated into the side bolster of each seat and head airbag for driver and passengers in each door panel ensures additional protection. In short: greater safety – even with an open hood.

Light systems

So that you always know what’s coming towards you, the 718 Spyder is fitted with Bi-Xenon main headlights with integrated LED daytime running lights as standard. Bi-Xenon main headlights in black with Porsche Dynamic Light System (PDLS) and LED main headlights with Porsche Dynamic Light System Plus (PDLS Plus) are optionally available.
Navigation and infotainment
Navigation and infotainment
Porsche Connect
On the race track or on the road: Porsche Connect expands the existing vehicle functions of the 718 Spyder with smart services and apps. All designed to make the connection between driver and car even closer. To improve Porsche fascination. And to overcome the challenges of everyday life, fast and simply. You can also do without the audio and communication system, if you want. When the way there is your destination you don’t need a navigation system.

Porsche Communication Management (PCM)

Porsche Communication Management (PCM) is your central control centre for audio and communication. The latest generation features a high-resolution 7˝ touchscreen display which can be used to control many of the vehicle functions. On the move, you can enjoy your favourite music via the CD/DVD drive, SD cards, internal 10GB hard drive (jukebox), the AUX input or the USB connection, for your iPhone®, for example. Or you can simply listen to the radio. Your 718 also enables you to use countless Car Connect Services via smartphone, such as vehicle positioning. The optional smartphone compartment in the centre console transfers your mobile phone signal to the external aerial of the car – conserving phone charge and providing optimum reception.

Navigation including Porsche Connect

Thanks to Real-time Traffic Information, the optional navigation module including Porsche Connect gets you to your destination quicker, and offers you numerous Porsche Connect services. You can use all the online functions with the help of the integrated LTE communication module with SIM card reader. In some countries, an integrated LTEcompatible SIM card with data allowance is also included, with which you can use Porsche Connect services such as navigation and infotainment services.*

* Porsche Connect services include a free inclusive period of use, the length of which may vary by services package and country but shall not be less than three months. The full range of Porsche Connect services or individual services thereof may not be available in some countries. The breakdown and emergency call services included in certain models are available in selected countries for 10 years after the production date. Availability also depends on the country-specific variants of the vehicle. In addition, an integrated SIM card with data allowance for use of selected Porsche Connect services will be included in the price in some countries. For use of the WiFi hotspot and the other nonincluded Porsche Connect services, e.g. music streaming, via integrated SIM card, in these countries a chargeable data package is also available from the Porsche Connect Store. Alternatively, you can establish a data connection using a SIM card of your own. For further information on free subscription periods, follow-on costs and availability of individual services in your country, please visit the ‘Availability’ area in the Porsche Connect Store at www.porsche.de/connect-store or consult your Porsche Centre.

Smartphone apps

In addition to its range of smart services, Porsche Connect also offers three smartphone apps. The Porsche Connect app allows you to send destinations to your Porsche before you start your journey. As soon as your smartphone has connected to PCM, you will be able to display these in the vehicle and start route guidance directly. Even your smartphone calendar can be viewed directly on PCM and stored addresses used for navigation. What’s more, the Porsche Connect app gives you access to millions of music tracks thanks to its built-in music streaming function.
The Porsche Car Connect app lets you use your smartphone or Apple Watch® to retrieve vehicle data and remotely control selected vehicle functions. Another feature is the Porsche Vehicle Tracking System (PVTS) including theft detection.
The new Porsche Track Precision app** with a fully optimised interface that is even easier and more intuitive to use enables your detailed driving stats to be displayed, logged and analysed on your smartphone. On the race track, the app visualises dynamic performance and, in addition to sector and lap times, also shows how the current lap compares with a defined reference lap. Recorded stats, circuit and driver profiles can be managed and shared directly from your smartphone.
Visit www.porsche.com/connect to discover more about the available apps and services. The range of Porsche Connect services is regularly expanded.

** App usage permitted on private land only. Operation of this product (including the video recording feature in particular) could be prohibited by laws or regulations in specific markets or events. Before any use of this product, please check that this is permitted under local laws and regulations.

Apple® CarPlay

The optionally available Apple® CarPlay function enables you to connect your iPhone® to your Porsche and have certain apps shown directly on the central display screen of Porsche Communication Management (PCM). With the Siri® voice recognition interface, you can conveniently use your apps on the move while keeping your full concentration on the road.

My Porsche

Every Porsche can be configured to your preferences. Porsche Connect is the same. Using My Porsche, you can retrieve relevant vehicle data and personalise your Porsche Connect services to suit your interests. By adding new destinations for your navigation system, for instance, or selecting your favourite sources for the news articles that you want to have read aloud in the car. My Porsche also lets you create additional users – such as family members or friends.

Porsche Connect Store

Would you like to extend your initial free subscription period? Or purchase additional Porsche Connect services? Visit the Porsche Connect Store at www.porsche.com/connect-store and discover more about what Porsche Connect has to offer.

Sound Package Plus

The Sound Package Plus ensures an excellent sound. The acoustic pattern in the vehicle interior is perfectly adapted to the driver and passengers by the amplifiers integrated into PCM.

BOSE® Surround Sound System

The optional BOSE® Surround Sound system has been specially developed for the 718 models and is optimally tuned to the specific interior acoustics of these particular vehicles. The audio system features 10 loudspeakers and amplifier channels including a patented, 100-watt active subwoofer integral to the vehicle bodyshell. This fully active system set-up enables each individual loudspeaker to be optimally adapted to the vehicle interior. The total output: 505 watts. Should you ever want to drown out the resonant sound of the engine. For whatever reason.

Burmester® High-End Surround Sound System

For even greater listening pleasure: the optional Burmester® High-End Surround Sound System. With a total output of 821 watts and 12 individually controlled loudspeakers, including a 300-watt active subwoofer with class D digital amplifier integrated into the body, it provides a unique sound experience – even with an open hood. Sophisticated high-end audio components, e.g. special ribbon tweeters (air motion transformers, AMT), and a total diaphragm surface area of more than 1,340cm² enable precision playback even at very high sound levels. A wide selection of preset equalisers ensures a first-class audio experience, while a sound conditioner based on microphone technology adapts the sound sensitively and in real time to the driving situation.
Porsche Exclusive Manufaktur
Porsche Exclusive Manufaktur
Our wealth of experience goes back a long way. Since the very beginning, Porsche has been dedicated to realising customers’ wishes. Known until 1986 as the 'Sonderwunschprogramm’, then Porsche Exclusive – and now Porsche Exclusive Manufaktur.
We love what we do. We love our work. Every seam, every square inch of leather and every other fine detail receives the same devotion. We transfer our experience and passion to the vehicle, together with your inspiration – thereby bringing dreams to life. Directly on the shop floor.
None of this would be possible without originality, enthusiasm and attention to detail, beginning as early as the consultation stage. Because we keep one thing in mind above all else: meeting your individual requirements, thereby turning ‘a Porsche’ into ‘your Porsche’.
And how do we turn your dreams into reality? With composure and meticulous care, by means of precision handcrafting and the use of exquisite materials such as leather, carbon or Race-Tex. Added value is achieved through dedication and finesse. Or to put it another way: the intersecting of sporty performance, comfort, design and your personal taste. A Porsche with your signature touch.
We offer a wide range of refinement options. Both visual and technical. For the interior and exterior. From a single alteration to extensive modifications. Because your inspiration is our passion.
Take inspiration from our examples on the following pages and visit www.porsche.com/exclusive-manufaktur to learn all about how to configure these extraordinary vehicles.